Although we do not take it into account, the life of the Solar System in which the Earth is located is not infinite and will end when the Sun dies, a fact that will happen in a few billion years.
Recently the scientific publication Science Alert compiled some studies that calculate how and when the end of the Sun will be and therefore of our planet.
Scientists have calculated that the Sun is about 4.6 billion years old, calculated using the age of other objects in the Solar System that formed at the same time; so, based on observations of other stars, astronomers predict that it will reach the end of its life in about 10 billion more years .
Although it will still be alive for about 10 billion more years, halfway through that time the sun will begin to undergo major changes and become a red giant.
Can you make the whole place shimmer? I can 😎— NASA Sun & Space (@NASASun) November 7, 2022
This sparkling image from the Solar Dynamics Observatory shows when a solar flare burst from the Sun yesterday, peaking as an M5.2-class flare at 07:11pm EST on Nov. 6.
Learn more about solar flares here: https://t.co/ATgOS1ThF3 pic.twitter.com/AJYzL4fi6s
With that change, the star's core will shrink, but its outer layers will expand as far as the orbit of Mars, engulfing our planet in the process.
After becoming a red giant, according to a study by an international team of astronomers, the Sun will most likely shrink from a red giant to a white dwarf and then end up as a planetary nebula.
According to Science Alert, planetary nebulae are relatively common throughout the observable Universe, with the famous Helix Nebula, Cat's Eye Nebula, Ring Nebula, and Bubble Nebula.
Humanity will disappear long before
According to scientific calculations, neither humans nor the other inhabitants of Earth will be close to witnessing the death of the Sun, because life on our planet only has about a billion years left.
That's because the Sun is getting brighter by 10 percent every billion years. That increase in brightness will end life on Earth. Our oceans will evaporate, and the surface will become too hot for water to form.